Xtoles – Aztec hymn to the sun (elementary strings)
Title: Xtoles (pronounced “chee-tol-les”) – Aztec hymn to the sun, arr. David Gable
Key: G Major
Genre: Indigenous song
Origin: Central America
Markings: dynamics (pp; p); upbows
Instrumentation: Violin 1; Violin 2; Viola (doubles cello); Cello; Bass (optional)
Note: open fifth double stops; double upbows; may be performed using as few as two parts, one high (violins) one low (viola, cello/bass); effective using layering (starting with a few instruments, adding more on each repetition) Xtoles is the oldest known musical piece in the Western Hemisphere. Various Central American cultures, including Aztec, Maya, and Toltec, have been identified as originating this chant.